It is difficult to ascertain the extent to which Hébert's publication Le Père Duchesne impacted the outcomes of political events between 1790 and 1794. Another writer at the time, Lemaire, also wrote a newspaper entitled Père Duchêne (although he spelt it differently than Hébert) from September 1790 until May 1792 in which he assumed the voice of a "moderate patriot" who wanted to conserve the relationship between the king and the nation. The trial was a mockery, and Danton was guillotined. Day 12 - Georges Danton We The Revolution Guide and Walkthrough. It is true that Hébert had at times expressed communist sentiments in his paper, 3 but to terrorise the enemies of the Revolution and to have the government seized by his party seemed to him far more important than to solve the questions of food, the land and organised labour. The Napoleonic era however should be the subject of another series. Among those who went to the scaffold with Pere Duchesne on the afternoon of the twenty-fourth were Vincent, Ronsin, and the leader of section Marat, Momoro. Neither Hébert nor Danton will stop until one of them is eliminated. “This man, who had personified as no one else had done the national temper in is crusade against the allied monarchs, who had been the very central pillar of the state in a terrible crisis, who, when France was for a moment discouraged, had nerved her to new effort by the electrifying cry, “We must dare and dare again and dare without end!” now fell a victim to the wretched and frenzied internecine struggles of politicians because now that the danger was passed over, he advocated with his vastly heightened prestige a return to moderation and concilliation.”. Because dissent was now regarded as counter-revolutionary, extremist enragés such as Hébert and moderate Montagnard indulgents such as Danton were guillotined in the Spring of 1794. We have much to learn from the French Revolution about murderous politics, extremists and party faction. During the night of March 30 (the 9th Germinal) Paris was stupefied to learn that Danton, Desmoulins, Phélippeaux and Lacroix were arrested. The Revolution is a unique game with a singular art style set in the blood-soaked and paranoid world of the French Revolution, where often you could not tell a friend from an enemy. Revolutionary Tribunal, preside over complicated cases of ordinary citizens, dangerous criminals, and enemies of the revolution in revolutionary Paris. He constantly felt great anger but also would experience great happiness. Hi Pete! He was sentenced to death with his co-defendants on the third day of deliberations. He wouldn't lift a finger to save the ultra-left Jacques Hébert and his followers when they were guillotined in March 1794. The law prompted multiple interpretations all of which led to what became essential Revolutionary ideals. My daughter and her hubby moved last November into a district where the public schools are considered excellent. [5] Hébert was not the only writer during the French Revolution to use the image of Père Duchesne nor was he the only author in the period to adopt foul language as a way of appealing to the working class. By the end of 1793, the Committee of Public Safety feared the activities of those calling for an acceleration of the Revolution, notably followers of Jacques–Réné Hébert, as well as those who sought to moderate it, known as "Indulgents" and led by Georges Danton. Although the character of Père Duchesne supported a constitutional monarchy, he was always highly critical of Marie Antoinette. Robespierre, Saint-Just and Georges Couthon were the ideologues, eloquent at representing the Committee to the Convention, carefully orchestrating the timing and intensity of judicial offensives designed to preempt flanking movements against the Committee, either from Danton’s supporters to the right or Hébert’s on the left. You make history come alive and you make it real. The French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent a radical change into forms based on the Enlightenment principles of democracy, citizenship, and inalienable rights. He’s currently in a really fine pre-school. Hébert fled first to Rouen and then to Paris. Origins of the Revolution Hébert's paper, however, became far more popular. Several very important revolutionaries were Cordeliers: Danton, Marat, Desmoulins and Hébert. Hébert went to the guillotine on March 24, 1794. Their execution by guillotine took place on 24 March 1794. Then in order to remain in power the members of the convention decreed that two thirds of each council should be chosen from the current membership.  It was a way for those who knew they were unpopular to retain their positions. nécessaire] : chute de la royauté, massacres de Septembre, chute des girondins, grande manifestation du 5 septembre 1793 qui précède la Terreur. His corpse was disposed of in the Madeleine Cemetery. There was another insurrection in Paris; this time by bourgeois and wealthier people to reinstall the monarchy. Its leader was Jacques Hebert who published a newspaper which was both obscene and profane and which was widely read in Paris by the lowest classes. Wajda’s Danton : a film that some of you must have seen. Both Hébert and Danton were politicians whose preferred policies were inconsistent with the pure Rousseauism that was Robespierre's guiding principle. And, whenever politics are involved – especially more so with the French Revolution – it demands sufficient information… Marie's passport from this time shows regular use. A new calendar was introduced for this purpose; a calendar which discarded Sundays, saint’s days, religious festivals and set up a novel thoroughly secular division of time.  “Decades” or periods of ten days replaced weeks.  Each tenth day was a day or rest. As a member of Cordeliers club, he had a seat in the revolutionary Paris Commune where on 9 and 10 August 1792 he was sent to the Bonne-Nouvelle section of Paris. At the urging of the Twelve on 24 May 1793 he was arrested. Robespierre furtively urged attacks on the blasphemous Commune, supported by Danton as well who declared “These anti-religious masquerades in the Convention must cease!”  Robespierre however, while taking Danton’s support was becoming his enemy.  Robespierre supported the terror while Danton was becoming more and more moderate after the execution of thousands. Always been a history buff of sorts Jennie. Danton was one of the prime movers during the French Revolution of 1789. Apologies for the rant. It is said he lived through expediency and scams. Hebert was executed at the Place de la Revolution in a batch of 20 fellow-radicals, among whom we also find the eloquent “orator of mankind,” anticlerical† wordsmith Anacharsis Cloots. Next Act 2 - Egalite Day 13 - Quick judgments Prev Act 2 - Egalite Day 11 - Gabriel Rouzet. the crisis now passed, he deplored and tried to stop.  When he plead for peace his rivals turned on him. Initially, Danton supported executing suspected enemies of the revolution, but in 1793 he had not wanted a repeat of the massacres of 1792 and he was having second thoughts about continuing the war. As a public journalist, he supported the September Massacres. They decided to kill Danton as the representative of the dangerous policy of moderation. From 1790 until his death in 1794 Hébert became a voice for the working class of Paris through his highly successful and influential journal, Le Père Duchesne. etc. During the night of March 30 (the 9th Germinal) Paris was stupefied to learn that Danton, … Prep schools here in New England have great history teachers. Create a free website or blog at WordPress.com. There was much irony in this scene – and some ungodly persons made merriment over this mummery, indulging in indiscreet gibes, laughter and sarcasm.  The power of sarcasm was not yet dead in France as this man who never smiled soon learned. For citra-revolutionaries like Desmoulins and Danton, they had used the press, such as Desmoulins’ newspaper Le Vieux Cordelier, to popularise their views to moderate the Revolution, therefore challenging Robespierre and the CPS from the Right.   The Commune announced an insurrection, broke into the prison and freed him.  The convention, hearing of this act of rebellion, declared him an outlaw. He and his followers, who were called Hébertists, pressured the Jacobin regime of … Hébert's political commentary between 1790 and 1793 focused on the lavish excesses of the monarchy. Major in Economics and European history in school. 92:28 - 92:29 Afterwards-- The Revolution. He published a few booklets. Those who will not learn from history etc. [14] Hébert fainted several times on the way to the guillotine, and screamed hysterically when he was placed under the blade. He would constantly use foul language and other harsh words to express himself.[9]. His violent attacks of the period were aimed at Jean-Sifrein Maury, a great defender of papal authority and the main opponent of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy. We. We also presented the rules of spending the evenings in We. Danton believed in the terror when he thought it was necessary and now believed the time for it had passed.  The armies of the republic had been everywhere victorious and domestic insurrections had been stamped out.  The Dantonists were now advocating clemency in the Convention halls.  The Committee of Public Safety was opposed to both the Hebertists and the followers of Danton. The cities grew and a purely capitalist industry began todevel… French revolutionary historians such as Jean-Paul Bertraud, Jeremy D. Popkin, and William J. Murray each investigated French Revolutionary press history and determined that while the newspapers and magazines that one read during the revolution may have influenced their political leanings, it did not necessarily create their political leanings. We have prepared some starting tops, which provide advice on how to be an effective judge. The counter-revolution might have been already victorious by the spring of 1794, but the committees decided to deal a blow to the Right, and to sacrifice Danton. Eighteenth-Century Studies Vol. In 1790, he attracted attention through a pamphlet he published, and became a prominent member of the club of the Cordeliers in 1791. ... 6 Responses to The French Revolution – Danton and Robespierre. By identifying Marie Antoinette's lavish excesses and alleged sexuality as the core of the monarchy's problems, Hébert's articles suggested that, if Marie Antoinette would change her ways and renounce aristocratic excesses, then the monarchy could be saved and the queen could return to the good will of the people. Hébert agreed with most of the ideals of the radical Montagnard faction; however, he was not a member of the faction. In part, this was due to the Paris Commune deciding to buy his papers and distribute them to the French military for distribution to soldiers in training. And so the King and Queen were dead as well as thousands of other “Enemies of the republic.”  There were now two governments in France; the Commune or the government of Paris and the Convention, the elected government o France. Republic, the choice would have been Danton.1 Bringing the story nearer to our own time, that is, to the eve of World War II, we venture to say that Robespierre would be preferred. Unlike the Jacobins who allied with the Popular Movement very late in the revolution (with considerable reluctance as well), the Cordeliers had a more collegial atmosphere. $6.99. There he found work in a theater, la République, where he wrote plays in his spare time, but these were never produced. During this time, Hébert had a luxurious, bourgeois life. With this whiff of grapeshot the Revolution is usually considered over.  It was not.  It would not end until Napoleon’s career was completed at Waterloo.  Four years after the cannons were fired at the Tuileries he would overthrow the Directorate in a coup after leading French armies to victory against the Austrians in Italy and taking his campaign to Egypt in an effort to cut off the British from India. This happened again in May and June 1793 when the Minister of War bought copies of newspapers in order to "enlighten and animate their patriotism." (Father Duchesne is very angry today!). In February 1793, he voted with fellow bourgeois Hébertists against the Maximum Price Act, a price ceiling on grain, on the grounds it would cause hoarding and stir resentment. A torrential rain storm broke up the crowds of his supporters gathering to attack the convention where upon the convention sent troops against the Commune and re-arrested him. Compared with Hébert's somewhat popular festivals, this austere new religion of Virtue was received with signs of hostility by the Parisian public. Diplomacy, Austrophobia, and the Queen." 87:04 - 87:06 ... We need Danton as an ally to deal with Hébert. Therefore, Hébert's writings certainly influenced his audience to some extent, but that does not mean that it changed the political outcomes of the French Revolution. “Here” he cried “is the universe assembled.  O Nature, how sublime, how exquisite thy power!  How tyrants will pale at the tidings of our feast!”  One hundred thousand voices chanted the sacred hymn.  Robespierre stood at the center of it all, at the very summit of ambition, basking in the boundless admiration. Spot on, Frank! The Hébertists had been suspected of preparing for a coup d'état and this may have contributed to the harshness with which they were treated. The French Revolution – Danton and Robespierre. I will be interested in hearing about Clark’s schooling when that happens. The Russian Revolution is in the archives if you like this sort oft thing. $19.99. “We thought that Hébert would have more courage but he died like a Jean-Foutre,” said another, suggesting a keen sense of poetic justice. [citation needed] They married on 7 February 1792, and had a daughter, Virginia Scipion-Hébert (7 February 1793 – 13 July 1830). Post Comment. Jacques Hébert, in full Jacques-René Hébert, pseudonym Père (“Father”) Duchesne, (born November 15, 1757, Alençon, France—died March 24, 1794, Paris), political journalist during the French Revolution who became the chief spokesman for the Parisian sansculottes (extreme radical revolutionaries). We. 9 No. A Letter by Jacques Hébert to Citizen Pierre-François Palloy. Hébert met his future wife Marie Goupil (born 1756), a 37-year-old former nun who had left convent life at the Sisters of Providence convent at rue Saint-Honoré. The medieval origin of the building is obvious from the architecture of the towers. We know where it went – he was buying up land in Arcis. More importantly, a new religion was introduced.  Reason was henceforth to be worshipped; no longer the Christian God.  Church bells were removed and melted down.  Death was declared to be “eternal sleep,” abolishing heaven and hell. This French Revolution site contains articles, sources and perspectives on events in France between 1781 and 1795. [citation needed], After successfully attacking the Girondins, Hébert continued to attack others whom he viewed as too moderate, including Danton, Philippeaux, and Robespierre in the fall of 1793 among others. Two days later Robespierre introduced a bill into the convention.  The irreverent, the dangerous must be swept like chaff into the burning pit.  This bill which became the law of the 22nd Prairial, (June 10, 1794) made the procedure of the Revolutionary Tribunal more murderous still.  The accused were deprived of Counsel.  Witnesses need not be heard where the prosecutor had “moral proof.”  Juries were purged of anyone only lukewarm toward Robespierre.  Any public prosecutor in France could send anyone before the Committees.  Any life in France was at his mercy. [16] That being said, his wide readership and voice throughout the Revolution means that he was a significant public figure and Le Père Duchesne's ability to influence the general population of France was indeed notable. Street hawkers would yell: Il est bougrement en colère aujourd’hui le père Duchesne! He had power but didn’t use it wisely; didn’t use it to bind the wounds and clinch the victory of the republic.  He too now founded his new religion; the nation was to worship “Virtue”.  An enormous amphitheater was built in the gardens of the Tuileries and one evening thousands gathered as the members of the convention marched in solemnly bearing flowers and stalks of grain.  He, Robespierre played Pontiff,leading the marchers  as if floating forth upon a long rhapsody rising in the background. In the Revolutionary Tribunal, Hébert was treated very differently from Danton, more like a thief than a conspirator; his earlier scams were brought to light and criticized. The Revolution (and its bizarrely placed full stop) is a game in which you play as a judge in one of the courts of Paris during the French Revolution. [12], On 10 November 1793, dechristianization reached what many historians consider the climax of the movement when the Hébertists moved the first celebration of the Festival of Reason, a civic festival celebrating the goddess of Reason, from the Circus of the Palais Royale to the Cathedral of Notre Dame and reclaimed the cathedral as a "Temple of Reason. Georges Jacques Danton (26 October 1759 – 5 April 1794) was a leading figure in the early stages of the French Revolution and the first President of the Committee of Public Safety.Danton's role in the onset of the Revolution has been disputed; many historians describe him as "the chief force in the overthrow of the monarchy and the establishment of the First French Republic". The 500 would propse laws and the Elders would accept and ratify them before they could be enacted.  The executive would be the Directorate, consisting of 5 persons at least 40 years old elected by the councils, one retiring each year.  France was not ready for a single President. wikipedia The revolutionists led in part by Marat, Danton, Saint-Just, Hébert, Robespierre unleashed a horrible monster, a monster that, in the end, they could not control, for as Pierre Vergniaud said, “The revolution, like Saturn, is devouring its’ own children.” We have already seen that … France was now run by men of property – a bourgeois republic. (I always say… 🙂 ) *** The economic and financial misdeeds of some of Georges Danton's closest friends, such as the aspiring author, Fabre D' Eglantine and the not-so-close associate, ex-Capuchin, François Chabot, in part, predicated the fall of the Titan of the Revolution. He was involved in the fall of the Bastille on July 14, 1789, and was the most outspoken critic of the commune and the Marquis de Lafayette. It’s fixed now. 30, 1794, Danton and his followers were charged with conspiracy to overthrow the government. Hébert's executioners amused the crowd by adjusting the guillotine so that its blade stopped inches above his neck,[15] and it was only after the fourth time the lever (déclic) was pulled that he was actually beheaded. The French linguist and historian Ferdinand Brunot called Hébert "The Homer of filth" because of his ability to use common language to appeal to general audiences[4] In addition, Père Duchesne's appearance played into the tensions of the revolution through the sharp contrast of his clothing and portrayal as a laborer against the crown and aristocracy's formal attire. Going to visit with them next week! [11] The program of dechristianization waged against Catholicism, and eventually against all forms of Christianity, included the deportation of clergy and the condemnation of many of them to death, the closing of churches, the institution of revolutionary and civic cults, the large scale destruction of religious monuments, the outlawing of public and private worship and religious education, forced marriages of the clergy and forced abjurement of their priesthood. An absolutely fascinating game that focuses on the early days of the French Revolution, from the Revolutionary to the National Committee. The counter-revolution might have been already victorious by the spring of 1794, but the committees decided to deal a blow to the Right, and to sacrifice Danton. The Revolution is a unique game with a singular art style set in the blood-soaked and paranoid world of the French Revolution, where often you could not tell a friend from an enemy. Your email address will not be published. Danton, unlike the Girondins, accepted the fury of popular passion as an inevitable incident in the work of deliverance. Son programm… In April–May 1793 he, along with Marat and others, violently attacked Girondins. Initially, from 1790 and into 1792, Le Père Duchesne supported a constitutional monarchy and was even favorable towards King Louis XVI and the opinions of the Marquis de La Fayette. Le tirage de son journal atteint 600 000 exemplaires en 1793 grâce aux abonnements du ministère de la Guerre qui le diffuse aux armées. After the establishment of the Third Republic, the choice would have been Danton.1 Bringing the story nearer to our own time, that is, to the eve of World War II, we venture to say that Robespierre would be preferred. In these countries an ever stronger commercialism developed. Robespierre’s voice failed him..”Danton’s blood is choking him!”  Finally the convention voted his arrest along with his allies. History repeats itself for those who don’t learn. "[11] On 7 June Robespierre, who had previously condemned the Cult of Reason, advocated a new state religion and recommended that the Convention acknowledge the existence of God. Danton, Georges Jacques zhōrzh zhäk däNtôN´ , 1759–94, French statesman, one of the leading figures of the French Revolution. Jacques René Hébert (French: [ebɛʁ]; 15 November 1757 – 24 March 1794) was a French journalist and the founder and editor of the extreme radical newspaper Le Père Duchesne during the French Revolution.[1]. Terror as a means of annihilating the country’s enemies he approved.  Terror as a means of oppressing his fellow countrymen. It invoked various questions and patterns of Revolutionary thinking and inspired various forms of writing such as Le Père Duchesne. In fact, as soon as the 11 Germinal (31 st March 1794), he tested his authority at the Convention by prohibiting the questioning of the Committee of Public Safety’s decision concerning Danton. The French Revolution (1789-1799) Within the limits of this paper, we can but state the reasons for the emergence of Danton, after 1870, as the great patriot and statesman of the Revolution. Ses articles ont contribué à créer dans les milieux sans-culottes le climat propice à de nombreux évènements révolutionnaires[réf. He was born on 15 November 1757 at Alençon, to goldsmith, former trial judge, and deputy consul Jacques Hébert (died 1766) and Marguerite Beunaiche de Houdrie (1727–1787). He then entered the service of a doctor. Having recently eliminated his adversaries Hébert and Danton, Robespierre delivered the keynote speech. This hideous law united the enemies of Robespierre either because they had stood for clemency or knew they were marked for destruction.  They could lose no more by opposing him. Glad you liked. This put him in the revolutionary mindset, and the Le Père Duchesne adopted a sloppier style to better appeal to the masses. Here is some background before we look at Danton’s famous speech. Jacques René Hébert (French: ; 15 November 1757 – 24 March 1794) was a French journalist and the founder and editor of the extreme radical newspaper Le Père Duchesne during the French Revolution.. Hébert was a leader of the French Revolution and had thousands of followers as the Hébertists (French Hébertistes); he himself is sometimes called Père Duchesne, after his newspaper. T he relevance of the French Revolution to present-day debates is the reason why I decided to write A New World Begins: The History of the French Revolution (2020), the first comprehensive English-language account of that event for general readers in more than 30 years. In his journal, Hébert assumed the voice of a patriotic sans-culotte named Père Duchesne and would write first-person narratives in which Père Duchesne would often relay fictitious conversations that he had with the French monarchs or government officials. For other people named Jacques Hébert, see, Significant civil and political events by year, Clash with Robespierre, arrest, conviction, and execution. French revolutionary leader Introduction in full Georges Jacques Danton born October 26, 1759, Arcis sur Aube, France died April 5, 1794, Paris French Revolutionary (French Revolution) leader and orator, often credited as the chief force in… Definitions of Georges_Danton, synonyms, antonyms, derivatives of Georges_Danton, analogical dictionary of Georges_Danton (English) Landes, Joan. Source: Labor College lecture First published: Labor College Review, November 1986 Transcription, mark-up:Steve Painter From the time of the discovery of America and the discovery of the sea route to India (end of the 15th century) there began a shift of power in Europe from Italy and Germany to thecountries on the Atlantic Ocean: England, Holland and to a lesser extent France. Review of Revolution in Print: The Press in France, by Robert Darton, Daniel Roche; Naissance du Journal Revolutionnaire, by Claude Labrosse, Pierre Retat; La Revolution du Journal, by Pierre Retat; Revolutionary News; The Press in France, by Jeremy D. Popkin. Sonenscher, Michael. Georges Jacques Danton (French: ; 26 October 1759 – 5 April 1794) was a leading figure in the early stages of the French Revolution and the first President of the Committee of Public Safety.Danton's role in the onset of the Revolution has been disputed; many historians describe him as "the chief force in the overthrow of the monarchy and the establishment of the First French Republic". This site is created and maintained by Alpha History. Historians have characterized him as correct, mediocre, thin, formal, academic.  “Virtue” was his stock in trade and he made it odious by his everlasting talk of it and the smug assumption of moral superiority, his pretensions of perfection.  He had a lamentable lack of humor and taste.  He suggested vaguely that every one of his enemies, and all of his rivals were his enemies were corrupt and immoral. On November 10, 1793 Notre Dame cathedral was converted to the “Temple of Reason.”  A ceremony that day included a dancer from the opera, wearing the tricolor, sitting as the “Goddess of Reason” upon the “Altar of Liverty.”  After this many churches were changed to “Temples of Reason.’. Names of the months indicated natural phenomena – July becoming Thermidor, or period of heat; April becoming Germinal or budding time.  November becoming Brumaire, or period of fog.  Dates were measured from the “Birth of Liberty” or September 21, 1792.  The day was divided into ten hours, not twenty four. France breathed more freely.  The worst evidently, was over.  The terror didn’t die that day but steadily declined in the succeeding months and was gradually abandoned.  A milder regime began.  The convention was now controlled by moderates but it was unanimously republican. 3 (1984): 326. This chapter of the guide to the game We. Revolution to its just, natural conclusion. For example, starting in 1792 the Paris Commune and the ministers of war Jean-Nicolas Pache and, later, Jean Baptiste Noël Bouchotte bought several thousand copies of Le Père Duchesne which were distributed free to the public and troops. Following Louis's failed flight to Varennes he began to attack both Louis and Pope Pius VI as well. In the spring of 1794 the Committee, under the leadership of Robespierre, arrested Danton and shortly afterwards the … Following King Louis XVI's unsuccessful flight in June 1791, Danton was among those who called for the creation of a republic, and his speeches were considered responsible f… 25 No. [3] In part, Hébert's use of Père Duchesne as a revolutionary symbol can be seen by his appearance as a bristly old man who was portrayed as smoking a pipe and wearing a Phrygian cap. The Commune of 1871 also produced this type of revolutionist. It was Napoleon Bonaparte making his debut. When arrested, he commented “I would rather be guillotined than guillotine.”  In prison, he said “Not one of them has any concept of government; Robespierre will follow me.  I would rather be a poor fisherman than meddle in the governing of men.”. It is estimated that Hébert received 205,000 livres from this purchase.[4]. [12] On 21 October 1793 a law was passed which made all suspected priests and all persons who harbored them liable to death on sight. A Parisian lawyer, he became a leader of the Cordeliers early in the Revolution and gained popular favor through his powerful oratory. Several very important revolutionaries were Cordeliers: Danton, Marat, Desmoulins and Hébert. Hébert, Jacques René (1757-1794): French Revolutionary and Journalist . Robespierre also sent the "Titan of the Revolution," Georges Danton (photo, right) --- the man who had transformed the Paris Commune into the Insurrectionary Commune(i.e., in preparation for the storming of the Tuileries), the man who had inspired the Miracle of Valmy, and the revolution's greatest orator and hero --- to the guillotine. Although Hébert did not create the image of the Père Duchesne, his use of the character helped to transform the symbolic image of Père Duchesne from that of a comical stove-merchant into a patriotic role model for the sans culottes. now directed by the Committee of Public Safety.  Both had cooperated in the overthrow of the monarchy and the Girondists, but now dissension raised its head and harmony was no more. Unlike Billaud Varenne or Hebert, or any other of the Terrorist party, he had no wish to use this frightful two-edged weapon more freely than was necessary. Propice à de nombreux évènements révolutionnaires [ réf wish public schools had teachers with passion although the of. Very angry today! ), to let everyone know where it went he.. [ 9 ] ], in his newspaper, le Père Duchesne was a mockery, try! Desmoulins and Hébert to overthrow the government inevitable incident in the archives you! Of in the archives if you like this sort oft thing patterns of Revolutionary and... 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